Tree and Shrub characteristics and facts Zone 5 from Perennial Group

Trees/shrubs – Zone 5, New Hampshire


Characteristics Acer sp. Acer   saccarum  Sugar Maple, Acer palmatum Japanese Aeschelus x   carnea /A. pavia   Red Buckeye or Horse Chestnut Amelanchier sp.   (arborea), Shadbush or Serviceberry
Mature Height 60-75’, up to 120’ potential 16-20’ (A. pavia),   30-40’ (A.carnea) or more 15-25’
Mature Width 2/3 of height 10-20’ Variable width
Sun/shade Moisture Needs Well drained moderately moist soilFull sun to part shade. Color better in acid soils Very tolerant of shade so effective under shade trees,   moist but well drained soil Full sun or part shadeMoist, but well drained soils
Landscape Value  (S, Su, F) S: Buds are soft pastel shades, flowers light green,   subtly attractive, Su: Leaves med. to dark green, F: brilliant yellow to   orange, variable. S: Light green leavesSu: Dark green midsummerF: yellowFlower panicles up to 12” long in spring, white or pink.   Very showy S: Very early, white or light pink flowers, perhaps   first flowering tree in springF: Yellow to apricot to deep red
Other redeeming Qualities Shade tree, excellent hardwood, maple syrup, shelter for   birds and mammals. Hundreds of varieties and sizes Nuts are food source for wild life but harmful to humans   unless boiled to remove toxins, yellow dye from bark Roots non invasive, produces nice light shade. Other   plants easily grow underneath.  Good   transition tree from lawns to woods.    Even George Washington planted at Mount Vernon
Pollinators Mostly Wind. Trees contain both male and female flowers,   Bees can collect pollen Hummingbirds, bumblebees.    Blossoms seem custom made for hummingbird beaks Bees;  Tree have   both male and female blossoms
Pests Winter Moth, other moths, Spindle and other galls. Damage   generally not fatal Leaf blotch, powdery mildew.  Many insects eat it, but showy nonetheless Most are free from serious diseases/insect pests
Usefulness to Birds, other   animals Baltimore Orioles eat winter moth caterpillars, sap for   birds Shelter for birds, nesting sites. Goldfinch, blue jay, titmouse, cardinal, robins, etc.   love red to purple/black berries in June.    Humans too. Some say tastes better than blueberry



Characteristics Betula sp. Betula nigra  River Betula papyrifera  White or Paper Calycanthus   floridus Carolina Allspice Catalpa speciosa
Mature Height nigra: 40-70,’ papyrifera: 50-70’ 6-12’ 40-60’
Mature Width nigra: 40-60,’ papyrifera: ½-2/3 H 12’ or wider spread 20-40’
Sun/shade Moisture Needs nigra: moist soil, full sunpapyrifera: well   drained acid soil, full sun Shade; adapts to many soil types Very soil tolerant but prefers deep moist soils, sun or   part shade
Landscape Value  (S, Su, F) Handsome specimen tree, S: pale yellow/green catkins, Su:   lustrous, dark green, F: nigra: not effective, papyrifera: clear yellow. Pretty in winter against evergreens Glossy deep green aromatic leaves are deer proof. Easily   grown, even in deep shade. Handsome leaves Difficult to use well because of large leaves, but   useful in many landscapes. Grows wild along banks of Souhegan River.  Flowers are large attractive white   panicles. Showy. Leaves almost last to open in S.
Other redeeming Qualities Pioneer species after fires.  Excellent softer hardwood.  Shade tree. Pineapple or camphor scent from all parts of plant. Oils   from flowers used in some perfumes Southern species home to Sphinx Moth. Caterpillars   prized for fishing. Tough skin, freeze well.
Pollinators Wind pollinated catkins Beetles and other insects attracted by the floral scent Bumblebees by day, moths at night, mostly. Produces   nectar for pollinating insects
Pests Bronze birch borer, gypsy moth caterpillars Very disease resistant Catalpa sphinx moth; usually doesn’t kill tree
Usefulness to Birds, other   animals Bark is winter food source for moose, deer; leaves and   seedlings are food source for deer, rabbit, moose.  Sap is food source for birds. Birch syrup   can be produced from sap. Nesting site for birds and mammals Fragrance attracts insects that are quickly eaten by   birds hiding in the foliage.  Deer   proof due to toxins Good protection for birds and bees against wind and   rain under the large heart shaped leaves.    Nesting sites for various birds
Characteristics Carya ovata   Shagbark Hickory Cerciphyllum   japonicum False Redbud or Katsura tree Clethra alnifolia   Summersweet or Sweet Pepperbush
Mature Height Up to 120’ 40-60,’ 100’ in wild 3-8’
Mature Width 25-35’ 20-30’ 4-6’
Sun/shade Moisture Needs Rich, well drained soil in full or part sun Rich, moist soil; fall colors best in acidic soils, full   sun Will grow taller in moist soil; full sun to heavy shade
Landscape Value  (S, Su, F) Stunning exfoliating bark on mature trees. Su: deep yellow   green. F: rich yellow with brown tones “Understated elegance.” Heart shaped leaves. S: reddish   purple new leaves, Su: Bluish green leaves, F: soft apricot to orange Wonderfully scented white or pink 2-6’ long spires in   July and August. S: Late to leaf, light green leaves, Su: shiny deep green,   F: yellow to golden brown
Other redeeming Qualities Excellent hardwood for building and tools.  Put twigs on grill to hickory smoke food.   Stately shade tree. Spicy odor as leaves color and turn in fall.  Beautiful shade tree Late to flower and bring fragrance. Late color change   in Fall
Pollinators Wind pollinated and self incompatible Wind pollinated, no nectar, but lots of pollen Butterflies, bees, Other insects.  Great pollen food source.
Pests Beetles (hickory bark around here, powder post elsewhere.)   Usually not fatal No serious pests “Tremendously pest free”
Usefulness to Birds, other   animals Wood ducks, bobwhites, turkey, mallards, beaver,   rabbits, woodpeckers, foxes, squirrels eat nuts.  Humans can too but not commercially  viable Shelter from wind and rain.  Produces dark red purple fruit that birds   love Seems to be a fine shrub for the middle to back of   border. Deer have not eaten mine!
Characteristics Hamamelis   virginia  Witch hazel Magnolia sp.   (soulangiana) Saucer Magnolia Quercis sp.   Oaks
Mature Height 15-30’ About 80 different species;  typical max. height in zone 5 is 30’ Many species/varieties- up to 140’
Mature Width 15-25’ 20-30’ but variable Easily the same spread as height
Sun/shade Moisture Needs Sun to partial shade; moist well drained soils; on dry   hillsides Full sun to part shade; Acidic moist soil Prefer full sun; Older oaks are moderately tolerant of   shade but younger oaks must have full sun. various soil types
Landscape Value  (S, Su, F) Last flower to bloom in year; bloom Nov-Dec; can look as   bright as forsythia. Green leaves in S. Yellow in F. Fabulous Flowers. Often glossy leaves.  Leaves may be two toned Lustrous dark green leaves in Su.; Most are red/purple   in late F or russet to brown. 
Other redeeming Qualities Very adaptable. Good transition shrub or small tree; Good   wildlife habitat Shade tree and wildlife nesting and shelter Excellent   shade tree and shelter for birds and mammals. Great hardwood 
Pollinators Bees and Flies of late F. gather nectar and pollen. Beetles only.  Lots   of pollen, no nectar. Beetles eat pollen for protein Primarily wind pollinated but bees do collect pollen
Pests Pest free Mildews, blights, scale; little permanent damage Galls most common but generally not fatal
Usefulness to Birds, other   animals Birds use it for cover.    Strong antioxidant and astringent qualities; Connecticut is considered the Witch hazel   capital of world but very prevalent in NH woods Songbirds eat seeds; excellent shelter for birds Acorns valuable food source for woodpeckers,   sapsuckers, jays, many mammals. Wonderful nesting sites and shelter

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